• Current Affairs , 27 November 2019

     

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1. Constitution is the Holy Book Which Provides Dignity to the Citizen and Upholds Unity of the Country
    2. The Samvidhan Divas
    3. RO filtersbanned by the  National Green Tribunal (NGT)
    4. Fundamental Rights and Duties go together, asserts Shri Venkaiah Naidu
    5. GES 2019 to showcase India’s service sector
    6. CCI approves acquisition of 4.94% shareholding in Suzuki Motor Corporation (SMC)
    7. DEFCOM India 2019
    8. National Milk Day celebration
    9. Automotive Mission Plan
    • Slow Down in Automobile Sector
    1. India’s earth observation satellite Cartosat-3
    2. Pakistan’s Supreme Court suspends Pakistan Army Chief extension
    3. 4 magnitude quake shakes Albania
    4. Bangladesh announces number of measures to control air pollution
    5. Rafael Nadal clinches sixth Davis Cup title

     

     

    NATIONAL NEWS

     

     

    1. Constitution is the Holy Book Which Provides Dignity to the Citizen and Upholds Unity of the Country

     

     

    • Prime Minister Narendra Modi today highlighted the strength of inclusivity in our Constitution and said that this has made us face of our challenges while upholding the integrity of the nation.
    • He was today addressing a joint sitting of the both the houses to mark the 70th Year of Constitution in the Central Hall of Parliament.
    • Referring to the Constitution day, the Prime Minister said, “ There are a few occasions and a few days that strengthen our relation with the past. They motivate us to works towards a better future. Today the 26th of November is a historical day. 70 years ago, we duly adopted our great Constitution. “
    • Prime Minister described the Constitution as a product of several debates and deliberations of the Constituent Assembly. He paid tributes to all those who put in their effort in providing the country with its Constitution. “7 decades ago in this Central hall, every clause of Constitution was discussed, debated on our dreams, challenges and prospects. Dr Rajendra Prasad, Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Pandit Nehru, Acharya Kriplani, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and several other senior leaders debated, discussed and gave us this heritage. I pay my tributes to all those who were responsible for giving us this constitution. “
    • “The dreams of the members of the Constituent Assembly took shape in the form of the words and values enshrined in our Constitution.”, he said. Prime Minister said that Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkarji, in his last discourse on the Constitution on the 25th of November 1949 reminded the people that in the past “we have lost both our freedom and the republic nature of the country owing to our own mistakes”.
    • Prime Minister said, “Ambedkar Ji warned the people and asked them if the country can now uphold its freedom and its democracy” Prime Minister said, “Had Babasaheb Ambedkar been alive today, he would have probably been the happiest. Not only India upheld its virtues but strengthened its democracy and freedom. “The sense of supremacy is due to the ideals of the constitution that we could move towards Ek Bharat Shresth Bharat.
    • The essence we arrive at is that Constitution is the only means through which this vast and diverse country can achieve its aspirations, dreams and progress.”

     

     

    1. TheSamvidhan Divas

     

     

    • Constitution day which is also known as the Samvidhan Divas is celebrated every year on November 26 to mark the day on which the Constitution of India was adopted.While the adoption of the Constitution took place on November 26, 1949, it came into effect on January 26, 1950.
    • The draft of the constitution was prepared by the drafting committee under BR Ambedkar’s aegis.According to the government notification, the Constitution Day was also a tribute to Ambedkar.
    • Earlier, this day was commemorated as National Law Day,after a resolution by the Supreme Court Bar Association, a lawyers’ body, in 1979.

    Rule 374A

     

    1. RO filtersbanned by the National Green Tribunal (NGT)

     

     

     

    • The Supreme Court has refused to stay the May 2019 order of the National Green Tribunal (NGT) that banned the use of reverse osmosis (RO) systems where drinking water supply had total dissolved solids (TDS) less than 500 mg per litre.
    • In May, the National Green Tribunal (NGT)asked MoEF to frame rules for the use of RO filters and also banned the use of RO purifiers in locations where TDS was low.
    • According to NGT, RO purifiers lead to the wastage of almost 70-80 percent water during the purification process.
    • It had asked the RO manufacturers to ensure that they are able to recover about 75 percent of the water.
    • Following this, the Water Quality India Association moved the SC to seek a stay on the RO ban. However, the apex court refused to give a stay.
    • A reverse osmosissystem applies an external pressure to reverse the natural flow of solvent and so seawater or brackish water is pressurised against one surface of the membrane, causing salt-depleted water to move across the membrane, releasing clean water from the low-pressure side’.
    • problems with RO plants:-
    • Deposition of brine (highly concentrated salt water) along the shores.
    • Affects fauna and flora: Hyper salinity along the shore affects plankton,which is the main food for several of these fish species. The high pressure motors needed to draw in the seawater end up sucking in small fish and life forms, thereby crushing and killing them — again a loss of marine resource.
    • Construction of the RO plants required troves of groundwater.Freshwater that was sucked out and is replaced by salt water, rendering it unfit for the residents around the desalination plants.
    • Cost and time:On an average, it costs about ₹900 crore to build a 100 MLD-plant and, as the Chennai experience has shown, about five years for a plant to be set up.
    • Energy needed:To remove the salt required, there has to be a source of electricity, either a power plant or a diesel or battery source. Estimates have put this at about 4 units of electricity per 1,000 litres of water. It is estimated that it cost ₹3 to produce 100 litres of potable water.
    • There are concerns that desalinated the RO water may be short of vital minerals such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, sodium, potassium and carbonates.
    • Low-temperature thermal desalination (LTTD) techniqueworks on the principle that water in the ocean 1,000 or 2,000 feet below is about 4º C to 8º C colder than surface water. So, salty surface water is collected in a tank and subject to high pressure (via an external power source). This pressured water vapourises and this is trapped in tubes or a chamber. Cold water plumbed from the ocean depths is passed over these tubes and the vapour condenses into fresh water and the resulting salt diverted away.
    • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion:It will draw power from the vapour generated as a part of the desalination process. This vapour will run a turbine and thereby will be independent of an external power source. While great in theory, there is no guarantee it will work commercially. For one, this ocean-based plant requires a pipe that needs to travel 50 kilometres underground in the sea before it reaches the mainland.

    4. Fundamental Rights and Duties go together, asserts Shri Venkaiah Naidu

    • Vice President of India and Chairman of Rajya Sabha, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu has stressed that Fundamental Rights of citizens are critically dependent on discharge of Fundamental Duties since both the rights and duties flow from each other. He spoke on the need for every citizen to take his duties towards the nation seriously at a function marking the 70thanniversary of adoption of the Indian Constitution in the Central Hall of Parliament today.
    • Noting that nation building can’t be the responsibility of Governments alone, Shri Naidu stated, “While it is absolutely necessary to defend the Fundamental Rights relating to life, liberty, equality and freedom of expression etc., it is time that we, as citizens, take our duties towards the nation seriously. Entitlements come with duties and responsibilities as well. He further said that a proper environment for enjoying rights will be created if every citizen performs her duties. “Let us perform our duty to make India mighty”, he appealed to the citizens.
    • Stating that a set of 11 Fundamental Duties have been listed in the Constitution of India,  Shri Naidu urged every citizen to take responsibility for protecting the sovereignty, unity and integrity of the country; promoting harmony; defending and promoting the dignity of women; protection of environment; preserving the rich heritage and culture including promotion of Indian languages; inculcating a strong civic sense; protecting public property and abjuring violence; and striving for excellence.
    • To spread awareness among the citizens about their Fundamental Duties, the Vice President suggested a three point action plan including introduction of Fundamental Duties at an appropriate level in the curriculum, displaying the duties at all the educational institutions, offices and public spaces across the country and reaching out to the youth through appropriate campaigns.
    • Shri Naidu called for aiming at quality and excellence in all walks of public life including the debates in the legislatures including the Parliament.
    • Referring to the origin and evolution of the Constitution of India, Shri Naidu noted that the dynamism in-built into the Constitution enabled the country in its march towards consolidation of democracy and socio-economic development. The Vice President noted that the Indian democratic experience over the last 70 years has been fairly positive except for a dark patch during the Emergency.
    • He said, “It is a glowing testimony to our country’s resilience, the strong framework of Parliamentary democracy, a robust electoral system and above all, the peoples’ ability to orchestrate dissent through constitutional provisions that prevented us from slipping into dictatorship.”
    • By placing the ‘public’ at the centre of our ‘republic’ the country emerged not only as the largest democracy but also as a glowing symbol of a vibrant, pluralistic culture with the flourishing parliamentary system, with the Constitution acting as the bulwark in protecting the rights of every society, Shri Naidu said.
    • Referring to the concern voiced by Dr. B. R Ambedkar, the Vice President urged the political parties to place the country above the creed so that the hard won independence is not jeopardised.

    5. GES 2019 to showcase India’s service sector

    • Union Minister of Commerce and Industry & Railways, Piyush Goyal will inaugurate the Global Exhibition on Services (GES) 2019 this evening in Bengaluru, Karnataka. Chief Minister of Karnataka, B. S. Yediyurappa, will be present during the inaugural function.
    • This is the 5thedition of GES and is an attempt towards escalating the Indian services bar in the global arena by exploring 12 Champion Services Sectors, encompassing participation from 74 countries and hosting sector specific knowledge sessions. India is looking to attract investments and partnerships in strategic areas like aviation and space programme, infrastructure, telecom projects, financial management and accounting, content, design, media distribution and outsourcing publishing work, Intellectual Property management services and environmental/ social impact assessment.
    • GES 2019 is spread across 19,000 square meters.Over400 exhibitors and over 3000 delegates including 400 overseas delegates from 74 countries will be participating in the GES 2019. There are also Indian and foreign business leaders from the services industry participating in over 4370 scheduled B2B meetings over the 3 days. GES will see representation of the public and private Sector, besides the participation of 10 Ministries from the Central Government and select State Governments showcasing their strengths in the services sector.
    • Through GES the Government of India seeks to engage industry and Governments across the world and promote greater exchange of trade in services between India and rest of the world, Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce and Industry in association with Services Export Promotion Council (SEPC) and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) has created a dedicated platform, the which is an annual event. GES also looks to enhance strategic cooperation and develop synergies to strengthen multilateral relationships between all stake holders, tap the potential for services exports and increase FDI inflow.
    • In GES 2019 SEPC is also looking to promote eSports. The eSports industry is expected to grow rapidly and in 2017 worldwide revenue generated in eSports market amounted to USD 655 million. The market is expected to generate close to USD 1.8 billion in revenue by 2022. The regular monthly salaries of average pro-gamers may range from USD 1000 to USD 5000 apart from the money that they win from prizes. There were 270 million global fans of eSports in 2016 and the number is expected to grow to 495 million in 2020. For GES 2019 India has invited eSports federations from several countries. Participants are expected from Indonesia, Vietnam, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Japan, Maldives, Saudi Arabia, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa and Korea.
    • SEPC is organizing Nations Cup (International eSports Championship) in association with Electronic Sports Federation of India (ESFI) during GES 2019. The Nations Cup will be one of the key highlights during GES and will open up multiple avenues for the services industry particularly in eSports, gaming and animation.
    • GES 2019 will host focused knowledge sessions on key Champion Services Sectors and will cater to many B2B, B2G and B2C meetings.
    • An International Moot Court competition is also being organized during GES 2019 for young lawyers,who along with their seniors, will argue cases related to intellectual property rights. In this competition participants from BIMSTEC (Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Nepal and Bhutan) and CLMV (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam) countries are expected.
    • India is also aspiring to promote niche tourism like the Buddhist circuit, adventure and camping tourism.Uttar Pradesh is the partnering state mainly to promote the tourism sector and will have a separate state pavilion in GES 2019.
    • In order to attract more players in the services sector India has liberalized its e-visa regime in three categories: e-tourist, e-medical and e-business to promote these sectors. Multiple entry tourist and business visas for a period of five years are now available to nationals of all countries for the benefit of medical tourists. Separate immigration counters and facilitation desks have been provided at six Indian international airports of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru and Hyderabad.
    • SEPC is an export promotion council set up by Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India in 2006 as an apex trade body to facilitate service exporters of India. SEPC actively contributes to the formulation of policies of Government of India and acts as an interface between the services industry and the Government. It has a membership base of 4800 members from the 14 service sectors.

    6. CCI approves acquisition of 4.94% shareholding in Suzuki Motor Corporation (SMC)

     

     

    • The Competition Commission of India (CCI) approves acquisition of 4.94% shareholding in Suzuki Motor Corporation (SMC) by Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) and the acquisition of 0.24% shareholding in TMC by SMC .
    • The proposed combination relates to the acquisition of a minority shareholding of 4.94% in SMC by TMC, and the acquisition of a minority shareholding of approximately 0.24% by SMC in TMC.
    • TMC is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer. TMC also provides services in other fields such as housing, financial services, communications, marine and biotechnology, and afforestation. In India, TMC is engaged in the manufacturing and sale of automobiles through its subsidiary, Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Limited, and in providing financial services through its subsidiary, Toyota Financial Services India. TMC is also engaged in the sale of commercial vehicles through its indirectly held joint venture, Hino Motors Sales India Private Limited.
    • SMC is a Japanese multinational corporation inter-alia engaged in the business of automobiles, motorcycles and outboard motors. In India, SMC is engaged in the manufacturing and sale of automobiles and two wheelers through its subsidiaries viz. Maruti Suzuki India Limited, Suzuki Motor Gujarat Private Limited and Suzuki Motorcycle India Private Limited.

     

    7. DEFCOM India 2019

     

     

    • The two day DEFCOM INDIA 2019 seminar commenced at Manekshaw Centre, New Delhi on 26 November 2019. The theme for the seminar is, “Communications: A Decisive Catalyst for Jointness”. The seminar is devoted to the seminal theme of leveraging communications for achieving jointness between the three services.
    • In his inaugural address the Hon’ble Raksha Rajya Mantri Shri Shripad Naik highlighted that the announcement of Chief of Defence Staff by the Hon’ble Prime Minister has been made keeping in view the much needed reform to streamline and further improve the coordination and integration between the three services. He stressed that seamless communications between the three services were a pre-requisite for achieving the vision of jointness.
    • General Bipin Rawat, Chief of the Army Staff during his key note address brought out the security challenges confronting the Nation and stressed on the need for ‘jointness’. He brought out that secure and interoperable joint communications were the need of the hour. General Bipin Rawat also stressed on the need for the industry to meet the aspirations of the Armed Forces and offer solutions which meet the operational requirements.
    • DEFCOM 2019 one the first day witnessed active participation from the armed forces, industry, research and development organisations and the academia. It provided an excellent opportunity for the industry to understand the requirements of the Armed Forces. The DEFCOM exhibition showcased cutting edge communication solutions from the industry and gave officers from the three services an opportunity to gain insights on technology and industry capabilities. The prestigious DEFCOM journal was also released during the seminar.

    8. National Milk Day celebration

    ·        The Union Minister for Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying Shri Giriraj Singh today addressed entrepreneurs, milk producer farmers, academia and media on the occasion of National Milk Day-2019 at Pusa in New Delhi. Addressing the august gathering Shri Singh thanked Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi for protecting interest of 10 crore farmers by not joining Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). He said that Prime Minister has always given the prime importance to the betterment of “Gaon Gareeb Kisaan” and RCEP was not in favour of farmers (Kisaan). Shri Singh further added that PM Modi had said that he cannot turn away from the needs of India’s farmers.

    ·        Shri Giriraj Singh stated that milk production has increased significantly from 137.7 million tonnes in 2013-14 to 187.75 million tonnes in 2018-19, thereby indicating an increase by 36.35%. Similarly, the per capita availability of milk increased from 307 grams in 2013-14 to 394 grams in 2018-19.  Annual growth rate of Milk Production during the period 2009-14 was 4.2%, which has increased to 6.4% during 2014-19. The annual growth rate of world milk production has increased by 1.2% during 2014-19. The Union Minister added that India is the ray of hope of the global dairy industry with opportunities galore for the entrepreneurs globally. Since last 20 years, India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world. This phenomenal increase is due to several measures initiated by the Union Government to increase the productivity of livestock.

    ·        Shri Singh also said that Livestock sector contributes significantly towards livelihoods and security net for the landless and marginal farmers. About 70 million rural households are engaged in dairying in India with 80% of total cow population. During the last 15 years, Milk Cooperatives have converted about 20% of milk procured into traditional and value added products that offers about 20% higher revenue. This share of value-added products is estimated to increase to 40% by 2023-24.

    ·        Addressing the gathering, Minister of State, Shri Sanjeev Kumar Balyan said that the 6.5% growth rate is still low due to the base effect but this will change as the Ministry is ensuring all policies and schemes are being formulated for improving the quality of livestock and quantity of milk. Shri Balyan thanks PM Modi for setting up a separate Ministry for Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying so that emphasis can be laid on their development. He said that resources of the Government are limited and private sector should also support the initiatives of the Government. Shri Balyan also said that there is a perception in the minds of the people about milk adulteration and it needs to be changed.

    ·        Minister of State, Shri Pratap Chandra Sarangi said that technology should be harnessed properly for improvement of the sector overall. He said that breed improvement can be done with innovative ways. He also said that policies should be made favourably to ensure both quality and quantity of domestic production, consumption and exports can be improved.

    ·        The Secretary, Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying emphasized that Government has initiated a number of dairy development schemes in order to meet enhanced demand of milk through domestic sources by laying special emphasis on raising milk production through improved productivity and health of our dairy animals. In this direction a new scheme has been launched by the Prime Minister called “National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP)” with an allocation of Rs.13343 crores for complete control of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Brucellosis in the country. Nationwide Artificial Insemination Programme for enhancing AI coverage thereby increasing milk production and productivity was also launched by the Prime Minister along with Start-up challenges. The Department is also working on convergence of schemes with the schemes of other Departments and Ministries so as to double farmers’ income.

    9. Automotive Mission Plan

    ·        The Automotive Mission Plan (AMP) 2006-16 taken up jointly by Government of India and the India automotive industry has been largely successful in its endeavor to lay down the roadmap for development of the industry. India has attracted significant quantum of investments from global and local original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) as well as component manufacturers, exceeding the target of Rs. 1,57,500 crore.

    ·        The Automotive industry has achieved the target of incremental employment creation of 25 million jobs over the period.  For the next decade 2016-26, another Automotive Mission Plan, 2026 has also been finalized jointly by the Government of India and Indian automotive industry.Automobile industry has made significant achievements in developing designing and manufacturing capability in the country. India has now emerged from just an automobile producing hub to designing and development hub as well.

    10.         Slow Down in Automobile Sector

    ·        There are cyclical slowdowns in many economies. 11.7 million vehicles (all categories) were sold during April – September 2019 as against 14.1 million vehicles sold during the same period in previous year. But the festival demand has shown year on year growth at 0.3% in the Passenger Vehicle Segment. Retrenchment of temporary workforce has been reported by the industry. However, no confirmed data on job loss is available with the Government.

    ·        The Government, as a policymaker, always attempts to keep and improve momentum of the economy through a package of measure for comprehensive and continued development of the auto sector as and when required. Some of the steps taken by the Government to counter automotive slowdown can be summarized as under:

    • Reduction in Corporate Tax to 22%
    • Continuation of registration of ICE and EV in future
    • Scrappage policy under consideration
    • Proposed increase in registration of new cars deferred till June 2020
    • Funds worth Rs. 70,000 crores released to PSU banks
    • Linking of repo rate to interest charged for vehicle purchased

    ·        As per the industry estimates, contribution of passenger vehicles to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has varied between 2.1% to 2.9% and the contribution of the Automotive Sector as a whole to GDP has varied between 6.0% to 7.2% from 2010-11 to 2018-19.

    11.       India’s earth observation satellite Cartosat-3

    ·     India’s latest earth observation satellite, Cartosat-3 will be launched from Satish Dhawan Space Center at Sriharikota at 09:28 AM tomorrow, using the workhorse rocket PSLV-C47.

    ·     The national space agency ISRO says the satellite will be launched along with 13 customer payloads from the US.

    ·     The 26-hour countdown for the launch mission began at 07:28 this morning.

    ·     This is the first mission by the ISRO after the Chandrayaan-2 mission. Its operational life would be for five years.

    ·     It has a very high-resolution camera that will be helpful in meeting the increased user demands for urban planning, infrastructure development, coastal land use and land cover.

    INTERNATIONAL NEWS

     

    12.       Pakistan’s Supreme Court suspends Pakistan Army Chief extension

    ·     Pakistan’s Supreme Court today suspended the decision to grant a three-year term extension to Army chief General Qamar Javed Bajwa.

    ·     The move came just ahead of 59-year-old Bajwa’s retirement on November 29. Prime Minister Imran Khan had approved an extension to the tenure of General Bajwa for another three years, citing the regional security environment.

    ·     The petition against Bajwa’s extension was filed by a person named Raiz Rahi, who later filed an application to withdraw it. However, Chief Justice Asif Saeed Khosa rejected the withdrawal bid and took up the petition as public interest litigation under Article 184.

    ·     During the hearing, the chief justice said the notification issued on the matter on August 19 mentioned an extension while the notification issued by the Prime Minister’s Office says the army chief has been ‘re-appointed’. Justice Khosa said that only the president of Pakistan can extend the tenure of the Army chief. He also observed that when the matter was discussed in the Cabinet, only 11 out of 25 members approved the extension.

    13.       6.4 magnitude quake shakes Albania

    ·     A strong 6.4 magnitude earthquake shook Albania early today, injuring at least 150 people and damaging buildings. There were no immediate reports of any deaths. At least three apartment buildings and the power distribution station were damaged in the northern commune of Thumane.

    ·     The US Geological Survey said, the quake was centered 30 kilometers northwest of the capital, Tirana. It was at a depth of 20 kilometers.

    ·     An earthquake in September damaged hundreds of homes in Albania.

    14.       Bangladesh announces number of measures to control air pollution

    ·     Government of Bangladesh has announced a number of measures to control air pollution as Dhaka remained the most polluted city of the world for 8 days this month.

    ·     Speaking after an inter-ministerial meeting on combating air and sound pollution on Monday, minister for environment, forest and climate change Md Shahab Uddin announced a number of measures to curb air pollution in Dhaka. He said that action plan for short term, medium-term and long term will be devised to control air and sound pollution.

    ·     Dhaka city corporations have been asked to spray water on streets twice a day to prevent dust. The construction sites including government-run metro construction and bus projects have also been asked to spray water on the site.

    ·     The inter-ministerial meeting decided that steps would be taken to shut down illegal brick kilns around the capital and stop garbage burning.

    ·     It also decided that all government construction projects will only use eco-friendly green bricks.

    ·     More than 2000 brick kilns are operational in Dhaka city alone. According to a report published by the environment ministry in March this year, 58 per cent of the city pollution was caused by brick kilns. Another 26 per cent of the pollution was caused by dust and vehicle emissions.

    ·     According to the official data last year 218 days were classified as unhealthy in Dhaka city.

     

    SPORTS NEWS

     

    15.       Rafael Nadal clinches sixth Davis Cup title

    ·     In tennis, world number one Rafael Nadal has clinched sixth Davis Cup title for Spain after beating Denis Shapovalov of Canada in front of a jubilant home crowd in Madrid. Nadal defeated Shapovalov 6-3, 7-6 (9-7) to clinch Spain’s 2-0 win against Canada.

    ·     Earlier yesterday, compatriot, Roberto Bautista Agut put Nadal in position to clinch the trophy with a 7-6, 6-3 win against Felix Auger-Aliassime in the opener.

    ·     The world number one has won all eight of his rubbers this week to help Spain to a first title since 2011. In 2010 Nadal won three majors, but the 33-year-old will likely look back on 2019 as an extraordinary year as he won the French Open and the US Open, made the Australian Open final and also reached the Wimbledon semifinals.

     

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